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Xanax is an antianxiety medication in the benzodiazepine family. This is the same family that includes diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), flurazepam (Dalmane), and others.
Xanax works by decreasing abnormal excitement in the brain. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved it in October 1981.
Benzodiazepines act on the brain and central nervous system (CNS) to produce a calming effect.
Xanax slows down the movement of brain chemicals that may have become unbalanced, resulting in a reduction in nervous tension and anxiety. Xanax works by boosting the effects of a natural chemical called gamma-aminobutyric acid, which is made in the brain.
To ensure the safe and effective use of benzodiazepines, doctors will provide the following guidance to anyone with a Xanax prescription:
People should inform their doctor about any alcohol consumption and any medications they are currently taking, including over-the-counter (OTC) medications. People generally should not consume alcohol while taking benzodiazepines.
Doctors do not recommend Xanax for use in pregnancy. A person should inform their doctor if they are pregnant, are planning to have a child, or become pregnant while they are taking this medication.
Until a person experiences how Xanax affects them, they should not drive a car or operate heavy or dangerous machinery.
People should not increase the dosage of Xanax without speaking with a doctor, even if they think that the medication “does not work anymore.” Benzodiazepines, even if a person uses them as recommended, may produce emotional and physical dependence.
People should not stop taking Xanax abruptly or decrease the dosage without consulting their doctor, as withdrawal symptoms can occur.
A person should inform their doctor if they have:
People should not take Xanax if they:
This includes people who:
People should not use Xanax if they are allergic to alprazolam or other benzodiazepines, such as:
People should not drink alcohol while taking Xanax. Xanax can increase the effects of alcohol.
People should not use Xanax if they are pregnant. Benzodiazepines can potentially cause harm to the fetus. During the first trimester, for example, Xanax increases the risk of congenital abnormalities.
People should usually avoid taking Xanax during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Healthcare professionals should also inform people that if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant while taking Xanax, they should tell their doctor.
A child born of a person who is taking benzodiazepines may be at risk of withdrawal symptoms from the drug. Respiratory problems have also occurred in children born to people who have been taking benzodiazepines while pregnant.
Xanax may be excreted in human milk. As a general rule, people who use Xanax should not breastfeed.
Researchers have not yet studied Xanax use in children.
Gender does not affect the body’s response to Xanax.
Older adults, or people aged 65 years and above, may be more sensitive to the effects of benzodiazepines. For example, the sedative effects of Xanax may last longer in older adults.
Accidental falls are also common in older adults who take benzodiazepines. Therefore, people should use caution to prevent falling or accidental injury while taking Xanax.
Xanax concentrations may be reduced in up to 50% of people who smoke, compared with people who do not smoke.
As with other psychotropic medications, there are some precautions to take when people with severe depression or suicidal thoughts take this drug.
Episodes of hypomania and mania have occurred in association with the use of Xanax in people with depression.
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People often misuse Xanax for the fast acting, relaxed “high” it can provide.
According to the Treatment Episode Data Set, the number of people seeking treatment for benzodiazepine misuse almost tripled in 1998–2008. Long-term misuse and addiction to Xanax are associated with depression, psychotic experiences, and aggressive or impulsive behavior.
According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, in 2011, there were over 1.2 million emergency room (ER) visits related to the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Xanax was involved in around 10% of those visits.
The number of ER visits involving the nonmedical use of Xanax doubled from 57,419 to 124,902 during 2005–2010 and remained stable at 123,744 in 2011.
The most common drug combinations that healthcare professionals encountered in people presenting to ER were Xanax with alcohol and Xanax with prescription opiatesTrusted Source such as hydrocodone (Zohydro ER) and oxycodone (OxyContin).
Many people use Xanax to manage anxiety disorder or to provide some short-term relief from the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment.
Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by unrealistic or excessive anxiety and worry about two or more life circumstances for a period of 6 months or longer. During this period, the person has been bothered more days than not by these concerns.
At least six of the following symptoms are often present in these people:
motor tension, such as:
Xanax is also indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, and it may reduce the number of panic attacks a person has.
Panic disorder is characterized by regular panic attacks. Panic attacks are relatively short periods of intense fear or discomfort where four or more of the following symptoms develop all of a sudden and reach a peak within 10 minutes: